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IPSA's Public Safety Column

The IPSA's Public Safety Column is an opportunity for our members and corporate sponsors to provide thought leadership articles about all topics facing public safety. 

The articles we publish are not necessarily the views of the IPSA, rather they are opinions shared by each contributor.

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  • 18 Mar 2020 9:10 AM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)
    By Natalia Kossobokova, Executive Editor of The Last Mile

    Public safety agencies and organizations across the globe are becoming increasingly smartphone-centric. In a recent webinar hosted by the International Public Safety Association, panelist Dale Stockton said, “When you consider the sheer utility and overall functionality, [smartphones] have become the tech equivalent of the proverbial Swiss Army knife.”

    It is this undeniable agility that has agencies thinking of smartphones as more than just a device for calls and text messages. When paired with secure, intuitive software apps and ruggedized accessories, smartphones enable agencies to operate more efficiently, maintain real-time situational awareness and increase first responder safety.

    However, there are always challenges for agencies looking to adopt new technology, especially when it is equipment issued at an individual level. Luckily, the webinar panelists had plenty of tips and suggestions for overcoming these common objections to smartphone (and tablet) adoption.

    “We don’t have the budget.”
    Funding is always a challenge for public safety organizations when it comes to acquiring and implementing new technologies. However, it is a challenge that is easier to overcome when those technologies can play multiple roles in the emergency management process and strategy.

    According to webinar panelist Luke Stewart, “When it comes to investing in the right equipment, scalability is the most important factor.” This means investing in multi-purpose devices that have long-term value.

    Many tablets now have cellular connectivity. Drones provide a great visual advantage, but they can also be used for extending coverage when towers are down. Free and low-cost apps like ATAK provide top-to-bottom mapping and messaging functionality for command-level decision makers and individuals in the field.

    For agencies still in need of funding support, grant programs are also a great place to start. Websites like provide a complete listing of available opportunities for emergency and mobile communications, including some recently released by the Department of Homeland Security.

    “We don’t have time for training.”
    Even with the funding for devices in hand, some agencies will delay adoption in fear of the eventual implementation and roll out. Fortunately, smartphones are one piece of equipment that’s easily understood due to their consumer use.

    For this reason, the panelists recommended that public safety agencies select mobile apps that are intuitive and quick to learn. That way, agencies can focus their training and policy on end-user specific courses, knowing that various stakeholder groups like law enforcement, fire departments, rescue teams, EMS and NGOs won’t be leveraging the app features in the same way.

    The panelists also recommended that public safety organizations consider training events that stress operating conditions, such as working in the dark or even putting phones in airplane mode to simulate a loss of service.

    “Smartphones easily break during operations.”
    There is a major concern that smartphones typically cannot survive fires, major downpours, or even just constant use. Investing in the latest ruggedized equipment can help ensure that public safety organizations get the most out of their devices. This gear doesn’t need to break the bank, either: various military-grade cases are available on the market and can sell for less than $60, and fireproof pouches are available as low as $17.

    The panelists also encouraged public safety agencies to look for device models that already come ruggedized or built with physical durability in mind. For example, Stewart explained how goTenna Pro radios are built to meet IP68 ratings, and offer flexible antennas and ruggedized Deployment Kit carry options for more demanding deployments.

    “We don’t have reliable cell service.”
    But what about the durability of the network itself? Public safety professionals often find themselves in dead zones or even highly congested areas that impact connectivity. Agencies in rural communities or those with unreliable cell coverage may question the utility of a smartphone if it can’t be used all the time.

    This is where mobile mesh networking devices can play a role in your agency’s mobile strategy. Mesh networking radio devices pair with smartphones via Bluetooth or USB and allow teams to communicate even when WiFi, cell and satellite are unavailable. This means that agencies can maintain real-time team tracking and critical text-based messaging when responding to any emergency, even when cell towers and other fixed infrastructure has failed.

    About the Author
    Natalia Kossobokova is the Executive Editor of The Last Mile and the Content Marketing Manager at goTenna. She spearheads the development of global marketing content which includes thought leadership content and other marketing projects. She has over 10 years of experience working in the government communications industry. Natalia graduated from the University of Maryland with a Master's degree in Business Administration.

    Related Content
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  • 12 Mar 2020 10:59 AM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that can spread from person to person. The outbreak first started in China, but cases have been identified in a growing number of other areas, including the United States, per the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    The CDC has released information on several aspects of COVID-19. Examples include:

    These are free resources available to the emergency responder community. We highly encourage you to read and share them with your departments, colleagues and social media.

  • 09 Aug 2019 11:16 AM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    By Sarah Guenette, IPSA Mental Health Committee Member and Learning & Development Manager, CCS Safety Champion, Calgary Community Standards

    A strong support network is critical for first responders to maintain good mental health. Spouses/partners play a key role in this. Spouses are likely to notice early warning signs that their loved one is possibly struggling with a mental health issue, organizational stress, or cumulative stress symptoms such as burnout, compassion fatigue or morale injury. For spouses to be aware of potential warning signs first responder couples should establish effective communication techniques built on trust, honesty and respect.

    Separate lives

    The nature of first responder work and the culture that goes with it tends to isolate its members. They are often unable or unwilling to share details of their work with their spouse. This is due to the requirement for confidentiality, but also the desire not to inflict vicarious trauma on their loved ones. It can be challenging for the partner at home to know that their spouse has another life when they put on their uniform. Spouses must accept this fact and learn techniques to manage any resentment or mistrust that comes with it.

    To cope with this, it’s helpful to get to know the other supportive people in the first responder’s life – spouses should get to know their first responder’s partner and attend functions such as Christmas parties to get to know teammates and supervisors. The first responder should encourage this. Knowing the other members in a spouse’s support network will help to build the trust.


    After a busy shift or following a stressful event, first responders often require some time alone to decompress when they get home. Due to the separation between their work life and their home life, it can be challenging for them to quickly move out of the first responder mindset and into the husband/wife/father/mother mindset. Until they have made that shift into their “at home” roles, conversation will be unproductive and potentially lead to conflict.

    However, the first responder needs to understand that their spouse and family need them, and they cannot isolate themselves at the expense of that. It is a good strategy to set a time limit for decompression time and let the spouse know how long is needed (ex., “I just need 20 mins and then I’ll be back”). The spouse then knows that they will have an opportunity to reconnect and talk after the first responder has destressed from the events of their shift.

    An early warning sign of potential stress problems is too much isolation. If a first responder is distancing themselves from their spouse, family and friends on a regular basis or for long periods, the spouse should talk to them and, if applicable, seek advice on how to handle the situation. Spouses might suggest accessing support services offered by the agency such as peer support, chaplaincy or psychological services. These services are also often available to family so couples should research what their specific agency offers.

    Active listening

    First responders are trained to keep their emotions in check and will sometimes resist opening to their spouse for fear of losing control or showing weakness. This can lead to unhealthy coping techniques such as distancing/social isolation, alcohol use or drug use. First and foremost it is important for them to know that showing emotions and opening up to their spouse is safe. The spouse should reassure them that it is a safe place where they will not be judged and that they will support and advocate for them.

    Active listening is a skill that should be practiced by both the first responder and the spouse to ensure there is open and respectful communication. Without active listening a person can quickly start to feel undervalued and start keeping things to themselves.

    It is important to note that when a first responder is in a decompression phase, they probably won’t be able to actively listen. They need to be fully focused and engaged in the conversation. Trying to get them to actively listen before they are ready will prove frustrating for the spouse.

    Active listening is not just hearing what the person is saying but focusing on what they are saying. When a first responder opens to a spouse there are four areas that the spouse should be concentrating on:

    1. What is being said – actual words.
    2. How it is being said – inflection, tone and body language.
    3. When it is being said – what does the timing say about what is being said?
    4. What is not being said – are they avoiding or leaving things out?

    Active listening can also entail asking clarifying questions and summarizing back to the speaker what they said to ensure it was heard correctly.

    Empathy and appreciation

    Empathy and intentional appreciation are critical in any relationship. Making these a priority contributes to strong communication. Each person in the relationship needs to feel that they are valued for what they contribute. 

    Since first responders work shift work and need time to decompress, spouses may feel resentful that they are “doing nothing” while the spouse has been managing the home and family alone during the shift rotation. As mentioned above, an understanding of the need for decompression time is important as is establishing limits on it. Likewise, the first responder needs to have an appreciation and empathize with their spouse who has stressors in their role too.

    If the first responder is never contributing that could be an early warning sign and should be discussed, especially if they are sleeping a lot and appear to be lethargic or have stopped taking an interest in activities they previously enjoyed.

    Critical stress

    Critical incidents, crisis stress response and occupational stress injuries can all affect a first responder. Spouses should take the time to research the stressors of first responder life and be attuned to early warning signs. First responders too should try to be self-aware and let someone know if they are concerned about themselves.

    Critical incident stress is “A state of cognitive, physical, emotional and behavioral arousal that accompanies the crisis reaction…If not managed and resolved appropriately, either by oneself or with assistance, it may lead to several psychological disorders”. First responders may take a while to talk about a critical incident. It’s important for those around them to be patient and be on the lookout for warning signs (increased alcohol use, lethargy, social isolation, hypervigilance).

    It is recommended to take a three-step approach to deal with any critical stress symptoms:

    1. Find the root cause – work back from the symptoms to find when they started and what the trigger was.
    2. Deal with it head on – any struggles identified must be addressed immediately. Seek whatever additional resources are needed.
    3. Take time to recover- it is a difficult time for both the first responder and the spouse so it’s important that both recover from the stress inherent in the journey back to health.

    There is no relationship more impactful to one’s mental health than that with a spouse. Given the stressors of the job, first responder marriages can be challenging. Having strong and respectful communication strategies is key to ensuring that the first responder and spouse are both willing to be open about stressors they are encountering and be committed to staying mentally healthy together. Spouses need to be aware of first responder culture and the specific stress responses inherent in it. Understanding can prevent resentment and frustration and help them to be proactive in supporting their loved one.

    Most importantly, if a first responder is struggling with stress, addiction or another form of mental health concern, they must feel comfortable to talk about it. The spouse is the main source of support in accessing additional resources. Investing time in forging strong communication skills, trust and appreciation is the best investment that can be made to create a lasting and loving first responder relationship.

    Author Bio

    Sarah Guenette, M.A., is the Learning & Development Manager for Calgary Community Standards. Sarah has a background in 9-1-1 and was a call evaluator, dispatcher and operations manager for over 10 years. She has overseen the Psychological Health and Safety portfolio for Calgary Community Standards since 2013 and is passionate about creating and maintaining a healthy workplace for employees. Sarah is also a proud first responder spouse to a Calgary Police Service Officer.

    Related Content

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  • 09 Aug 2019 4:52 AM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    By Brendalyn Val Bilotti, IPSA TEMS Committee Member

    Tactical Medicine is a rapidly growing area in law enforcement. This focus on advanced pre-hospital medicine in a tactical or austere environment is the result of the current risks associated with law enforcement activities and the ever-growing war on terrorism. Furthermore, the Federal Bureau of Investigation has released the “2017 Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted” report online. This report states that 60,211 officers assaulted while performing their duties. They also reported that 46 law enforcement officers were feloniously killed in the line of duty, as well as an additional 47 law enforcement officers died as the result of accidents that occurred in the line of duty.

    As TEMS (Tactical Emergency Medical Support) has grown in popularity, so have the number of programs offering instruction for this specialty. The challenge has been in the varied ways these programs are conducted. With a lack of a nationwide standardized competency-based program, such as is used with Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS), the programs that do exist are producing a wide range of understanding, capabilities, and expectations of performance.

    An individual who has completed a Tactical Medicine training program may or may not be competent to perform any number of medical procedures. Issues such as licensure, state and county laws, and the broad background that TEMS operators come from, beginning at the certified First Responder, including licensed personnel such as EMT's, paramedics and nurses, and ending by encompassing the physician level make the solutions complex. Currently, a certificate is not a validation of competence. It is this gap that should be addressed and with current movements toward standardization. In the article “Tactical Medicine-Competency-Based Guidelines” the framework to develop a standardized program is outlined.

    “Licensed vs. non-licensed."

    One of the most challenging areas of establishing consistent delivery of TEMS resources is the significant variation that TEMS providers come from. Due to the nature of the physical demands of the tactical environment as well as the increased risk to the provider, TEMS providers are almost always volunteers. They are physicians, physician assistants, nurses, paramedics and EMT's. The problem arises not just in their scope of practice and what they can do, but also the autonomy with which they are able to provide this support. A physician may act independently, but a nurse and physician's assistant need to operate under the auspices of a physician. Paramedics and EMT's can only provide care within the state guidelines, and must also be certified by the local county to provide this care.

    Given the variation in what care is provided, the questions that individual departments need to ask include:

    1.     What competencies are required of each TEMS operator?

    The basis for most trauma care is adapted or adopted from The Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care, and The Committee on Emergency Casualty Care outlines the best practices for trauma care in a tactical environment. It is not all inclusive of all the needs of a law enforcement operation. In addition, the California Emergency Medical Services Agency (CAEMSA) and Police Officer Standardized Training (POST) have released a collaborative “Guidelines for Tactical Medicine.” It is from this position a course can be developed for all deputies, and from that course, advanced courses can quickly grow.

    2.     Medical equipment should each operator carry?

    As in any job, the tools you take with you dictate how much one can accomplish while completing the job assigned to you. To have impractical tools, impractical tools or the wrong tools not only inhibit but impedes mission completion. Therefore, deciding what tools a TEMS operator carries indicates how independent they are and how effective they are while providing medical care. Equipment including tourniquets, chemical hemorrhagic control agents, pressure dressing and airway support equipment all need to be evaluated.

    3.     How often should each TEMS operator be required to perform these skills in a training environment?

    Professional licenses and certifications have to be renewed every 2-6 years, depending on a provider’s level of training and licensure. No standard currently exists for tactical medicine. It is well documented that skill degradation occurs without practice, and this area needs to be addressed. Insight for this can be garnered from air ambulance programs, which have a broad scope of practice and regimented training schedules. This would include a focus on the non-medically trained patrol officer who is on the front line of any law enforcement activity, from a traffic stop to those whose job puts them at greatest threat, such as Explosive Ordinance Disposal (EOD) or Special Response Unit (SRU).

    Licensed professionals have a scope of practice defined and often limited by the licensing body. Example are the American Medical Association (AMA), California Board of Registered Nursing (BRN), and the CAEMSA as defined by Title 22 of the State of California, as well as the First Responder course which is a non-licensed certification whose scope of practice is defined by the United States Department of Transportation (DOT).

    These licensing and certification bodies have standards of practice, assessments, procedures and tests that each level of licensure is required to prove competence in through written and skills testing — providing certification at each level: Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS; for a contracted and trained EMT/paramedic/nurse, providing care under fire in the hot zone) and the Tactical Medical Doctor (TMD; for the physician serving as the tactical team's medical director and medical team leader). With these different and well-defined levels of care, both the tactical team leader, the medical team leader and all tactical team members have clear expectations of services provided at each level, thereby furthering legitimization of the TEMS and TMD providers and their integration into the tactical program and environment.

    Training Target

    When inquires have been made of law enforcement officers regarding the tactical medicine courses they have taken, one similar concern was voiced: programs seemed to be often geared toward medical personnel with no law enforcement or military background, and not toward experienced law enforcement officers. This subtle yet profound difference means that many program's curricula included topics such as weapons, tactics and range time. Officers stated they did not need nor want these topics because these were covered in their academies, SWAT schools and were governed by their specific agency's policies. Some programs did not delineate between licensed and not licensed students, and students attended classes in skills that they could never use.

    Suggestions included the following:

    • Develop a visionary and forward-thinking curriculum that approaches the topic of tactical medicine from the view of law enforcement officers.

    • Law enforcement leaders need to be at the forefront in advocating for and ensuring that the expertise, training, and equipment to support our first line of defense is available.

    • Law enforcement agencies need to define the qualification requirements for all officers.

    • Periodic formal and informal meetings among law enforcement and medical leaders are essential for unit cohesion and clear communication before an incident.

    The suggestions listed above provide a useful framework for creating a Tactical Medicine Program for law enforcement.

    On a micro-level, this provides the law enforcement community an alternative to the currently available method of having an ambulance on standby unavailable to provide immediate casualty care, thereby delaying care to wounded officers, civilians or suspects.

    On a global scale, this type of program provides incredibly valuable alternatives to current training programs that are tactical and weapons focused in training, and further providing a medically focused and competency-based program, as opposed to one based only in theory or one that his focused on licensed personnel with an advanced scope of practice.  It is essential to convey the importance of offering a quality standard based curriculum that includes a specific performance-based standard that is divided by the performance level of function.

    The publication concluded with several additional recommendations.  The following is a summary of several of the key recommendations provided for law enforcement:

    • Law enforcement needs to learn more about the available resources of the communities they serve as well as the capabilities of other agencies involved in emergency response.

    • Law enforcement leaders must develop relationships and networks with medical and EMS agencies before a crisis occurs.

    • Law enforcement leaders must assure a strong institutional commitment to officer safety and providing resource allocation to provide the necessary skills and equipment.

    The information in the publication was comprehensive and covered a breadth of information. This article covers just a few of the specific decisions that each agency must make. Just like corporate culture, each agency defines the roles and responsibilities of its officers, as well as expectations of basic training standards and operational expectation.

    The information provided in this article is intended as a starting point for law enforcement and medical leaders to develop a collaborative, proactive and problem-solving approach to combat future knowledge deficits and ensure a well-trained and well equipped first line of defense.

    This basic outline provides a solid starting point for developing a tactical medical program. As this program becomes developed and the instructor cadre solidifies a program can be expanded to teach all law enforcement self-aid and buddy aid. These skills reduce the severity and long-term impact of the line of duty injuries.

    It is from this launching point that a program can be used to develop a program. With slight modification, it can be offered to other affiliated public safety agencies, such as fire departments, the county contracted ambulance provider. A program is unique in the provision of medical care in the tactical environment geared towards experienced law enforcement officers and experienced medical providers.

    Author Bio

    Brendalyn "Val" Bilotti directs training operations as the Alameda County POST MASTER Instructor including training needs assessments for 3K public officials, curriculum design, review and consulting, and ensuring regulatory compliance. Some of her key accomplishments include: Served as a Chair for the California Tactical EMS Advisory Subcommittee, Command Staff on search assignment, and the URBAN SHIELD Medical Branch Chief responsible for the oversight, care, treatment & transport of 250 SWAT officers; conducted site risk assessments to project medical needs in a large-scale Homeland Security/Disaster exercise for 280 participants across 792 miles and 7 countries achieving 99.5% success in providing all medical care onsite; and established a competency-based Tactical Medical Program for Law Enforcement officers including tourniquet training to prevent death by extremity hemorrhage achieving 98% successful placement on all extremities within 20 seconds.

    Article References

    California Tactical Casualty Care Training Guidelines (2017)

    TECC Guidelines

    Related Content

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  • 08 Jul 2019 1:43 PM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    By Mike O’Shea, Program Manager, Safety and Integration Division, Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration Office, Federal Aviation Administration and IPSA September Symposium Presenter

    Drones are reinventing industries, creating new ones and bringing benefits to public safety agencies who are increasingly using them to support their mission. This technology tool can significantly advance and support search and rescue, fire and crash investigations, and other dangerous situations where airborne situational awareness can decrease hazard risks to public safety personnel and the people they serve.

    Drones are not toys. They are, by law, ‘aircraft’ and their use requires that public safety agencies know the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), state and local regulations, laws and statutes governing their use.

    The presentation at the IPSA’s Natural and Man-Made Disaster Recovery Symposium this September 18 and 19 in Washington D.C. will provide the International Public Safety Association (IPSA) attendees with key information and FAA resources for public safety agencies that want to operate drones in our nation’s airspace. I will discuss the path to starting a program as well as many important considerations such as community outreach. The presentation will cover the FAA’s safety mission and how that mission impacts our actions and your proposed operations. I’ll cover the pros and cons of operating as a public aircraft operation (PAO Part 91) versus as a civil operator (Part 107) or operating as both.

    We will also examine waivers and certificate of authorizations that allow greater uses of drones as long the operator can safely mitigate dangers to manned aircraft and people on the ground.

    I’ll also introduce attendees to the FAA’s new Public Safety Small Drone Playbook, a great resource for public safety agencies that deal with possible unlawful drone operations. I’ll provide information that will help connect public agencies with the FAA’s Law Enforcement Assistance Program (LEAP) which is an incredibly useful field resource. Lastly, there will be time for participants to ask their specific questions regarding operating a drone in the national airspace.

    Agencies operating a drone, starting a drone program, or are just curious as to if this technology might be a future direction for their agency, should attend this presentation.

    Author Bio

    Michael O’Shea is a Program Manager for the FAA’s UAS Integration Office’s, Safety & Integration Division where he serves as liaison, facilitator and resource for both public and civil unmanned aircraft integration efforts. 

    Before joining the UAS Integration Office, Mr. O’Shea was a program manager in the U.S. Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Office of Science and Technology for 17 years where he managed the law enforcement aviation technologies program. As part of his duties at DOJ Mr. O’Shea sat on the Small UAS and Remote Tracking/ID Aviation Rule Making Committees. Prior to working at DOJ, Mr. O’Shea spent almost 15 years as a uniformed law enforcement officer.

    Mr. O’Shea is a graduate of Baker University (Kansas) with a degree in Business and Marketing. Mr. O’Shea holds a FAA Light-Sport Pilot Certificate (Fixed Wing, Gyroplanes and Powered Parachutes) and a Remote Pilot Certificate.

    Related Content

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  • 08 Jul 2019 1:18 PM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    By Lauri Stevens, LAwS Communications and IPSA September Symposium Presenter and IPSA Board Member Chris Butler

    International Public Safety Association Board member Chris Butler spoke with Lauri Stevens from LAwS Communications about her upcoming presentation at the IPSA’s Natural and Man-Made Disaster Recovery Symposium this September 18 and 19 in Washington D.C.

    Stevens will be leading a panel of experts in a discussion about communications strategies for public safety agencies following a major incident, whether planned or unplanned. Butler asked Stevens a series of questions about the critical communication issues and her responses are presented here as a preview of the exceptional presentation that will take place at the IPSA’s event this September.

    Q: Lauri, so you have a lot of experience in critical communications strategies following major incidents. Why do you feel this is such a vital topic for organizations to understand?

    First responders seem to train, strategize and plan for handling incidents constantly. However, it seems this doesn’t always include a communications strategy. If they do have a communications strategy, the social media component is not comprehensive in terms of response, engagement and management.

    Ideally, organizations should include social media simulations in their events training and have templated messaging formulated. Additionally, they’ve created an operational team includes members of their own organization and members of other sister organizations with whom they need to coordinate communications (especially social media) during an event.

    Q: When you think about some of the incidents you have been involved in, what are some of the key concepts of communication strategies that the panel address?

    We all want to learn from others and learn from our own experiences. Not all our discussion will be about successes, but also the mistakes that were made.

    Our goal for the panel will be for it to be interactive with the audience. I can always lead a discussion, but we want the audience participants to ask their own questions and be part of the discussion.

    In addition to strategy, other key concepts will be messaging development and consistency, inter-organizational cooperation, importance of engagement even if you have nothing to say and monitoring for situational awareness.

    Q: I'm sure you have witnessed the full range of communication strategies after major incidents - from great to extremely poor. In your experience what are some of the consistent communication errors that agencies make?

    Time and time again the mistakes fall into the following buckets: Not using social media until something happens; having no plan; no policy and not engaging.

    Q: What are your objectives for the panel discussion? In other words, what 'take aways' are you hoping the attendees leave with that will create positive changes in their own agencies when they go back?

    At the risk of sounding like a broken record, organizations all need to take social media more seriously.

    I can’t think of any other thing that can destroy you if handled poorly. On the flipside, if handled well, social media can save lives and property and make your organization look stellar.

    And yet, hopefully the attendees will also see that even if they do all the above well, we have a long way to go to fully realize the depth of what can be achieved with expert use of social media and open source technologies.

    Author Bios

    Lauri Stevens is the principal consultant and founder of LAwS Communications. Lauri is also the creator and producer of the SMILE Conference® and the creator of the ConnectedCOPS™ blog and social media awards program; as well as the Global Police Tweet-a-thon. She is an interactive media professional with over 25 years of media experience, including 12 years in higher education as a Department Chair of Interactive Media and 14 years as a radio and television journalist prior to that.

    Chris Butler is a member of the International Public Safety Association’s Board of Directors. He is a 34-year law enforcement veteran and recently retired as the Inspector of the Major Event and Emergency Management Section of the Calgary Police Service in Calgary, Alberta, Canada; an agency of over 2,200 sworn officers policing approximately 1.2 million people.

    Related Content

    Register to Attend 

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  • 29 May 2019 9:28 AM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    Sepsis is the body’s extreme response to an infection and is a life-threatening medical emergency. With sepsis starting outside the hospital in 80% of cases, first responders like Emergency Medical Service (EMS) personnel are often the first medical providers to see patients with sepsis. Prompt action by EMS personnel is critical and can increase a patient’s chances of survival.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released an EMS card for sepsis to remind first responders of the signs and symptoms of sepsis and to gather critical medical information to communicate to hospital healthcare professionals upon arrival.

    Additional sepsis resources for care providers and families can be found here:

  • 19 May 2019 5:27 AM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    Editor’s Note: Article reprinted from EMS Week 2019 publication. Please find out more about EMS Week at 

    “It started as a way for me to cope, process and purge some of the bad calls I attended,” explains artist Daniel Sundahl. Five years ago, firefighter and advanced care paramedic for the City of Leduc (Alberta, Canada), Sundahl turned to art as a way to manage his own on-the-job stress. “Each image is based on an actual call I attended,” explains Sundahl. “I stage the photo, capture the image then digitally draw and paint over that digital photo, recreating more of how I felt during that call rather than what I saw.”

    Daniel Sundahl’s art helps to ease the mental health challenges of first responders. (Photo/Daniel Sundahl) 

    Sundahl never realized how much his blend of photography and graphic art would inspire other first responders. “It was never my intention to share the images initially,” he says. “I thought for sure I would receive negative feedback from my peers for showing our profession in a such a vulnerable condition.”

    On the contrary, his thought-provoking and sometimes haunting artwork has been celebrated throughout the EMS community. He has become a popular speaker at EMS events, has been featured in publications throughout the United States and Canada and has published two books of his work. “The positive response I received once I shared those first images was overwhelming; I never imagined others would attach their own experiences to my artwork.”

    What started as an outlet to express his own personal experiences with occupational stress injuries and post-traumatic growth has turned into a passion for exposing PTSD and easing the mental health challenges faced by first responders.

    Says Sundahl, “It’s been very therapeutic for me because the response I get every day tells me I’m not alone in the way I sometimes feel about my work as a paramedic and firefighter.”

    Find out more about Daniel Sundahl at

  • 10 May 2019 10:44 AM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    By Phil Raum, Maryland Emergency Response System and IPSA UAS Committee Member

    The goal of creating a drone program is to create a deployable sUAS capability to meet the agency’s mission requirements. Generally, building a capability requires several tasks associated with planning, organizing, equipping, training, and exercising. Just buying equipment does not necessarily give an agency a deployable capability. There are usually policy and training issues that need to be addressed with the purchase of equipment, and sUAS equipment is no exception.

    Here are 10 tips to assist an agency in developing a legally deployable drone capability. 

    1. Define objectives and outcomes. Clearly define the outcomes the agency wants to achieve with the sUAS capability, such as:

    • Situational awareness.
    • Payload delivery.
    • Search and rescue.
    • Other.

    2. Create policy, plans and procedures. Develop appropriate agency policy, plans and procedures for deploying a drone capability that cover the entire range of drone activities.
    • FEMA considers drone equipment to be controlled equipment; therefore, if the agency is using federal grant funds to purchase drone equipment, FEMA must approve the agency’s policy prior to the agency spending grant funds on that equipment. 
    • Policy should be compatible with political leadership requirements.
    • Policy addresses all legal privacy concerns, as well as other community concerns.
    • Policy addresses evidence retention issues for video, photos, and other sensory information gathered. 
    • SOPs and operations manual. 
    • Mutual Aid Agreements (MAA’s), where appropriate.

    3. Comply with all legal requirements. Ensure that the agency complies with all federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and case law.

    • The Federal Aviation Administration has authority to regulate the nation’s air space
    • The FAA’s website lists all appropriate laws and regulations for sUAS operations.   
    • Public Safety agencies can operate drones under a COA (Certification of Authorization) or a 14 CFR Part 107.  There are advantages and disadvantages to each option.  The agency needs to be familiar with them in order to choose the option that best meets the needs of the jurisdiction or agency. 
    • There is federal case law that addresses privacy rights as it relates to surveillance by sUAS vehicles. 

    4. Identify risks and mitigation strategies. Identify risks associated with developing and deploying this this capability and the strategies to mitigate those risks, such as:

    • Political support.
    • Senior leader support.
    • Damage to drones and private property.
    • Personal injury.
    • Staff time for training.
    • Budgetary sustainment of this capability over time.
    • Maintenance.
    • Evolving technologies.
    • Legal and regulatory changes.

    5. Develop a realistic budget. Ensure that the agency’s budget addresses all the expenses associated with developing a deployable capability.  There is a significant risk that equipment will be damaged or destroyed during training and/or deployments. 

    • sUAS vehicles and replacement vehicles
    • Control equipment
    • Batteries and chargers, enough to sustain extended flight times. 
    • Replacement parts, e.g., rotors
    • Signal amplification equipment
    • Operator training
    • Landing pads
    • Software for aerial mapping, live-streaming and GPS.

    6. Consider building the sUAS capability in phases.

    • Build upon lessons-learned during real world deployments and exercises. 
    • Leverage the development and advancement of technology over time.  

    7. Ensure all the right people, disciplines and agencies are involved. Ensure that all the appropriate personnel, disciplines, and agencies that should be involved in the development of the sUAS capability are, in fact, involved and can weigh in on that process. 

    • Political leadership.
    • Agency senior leadership.
    • Agency legal representatives.
    • Budget personnel.
    • Community leadership (Experience has shown that involving the community in the capability development early in the process can significantly increase public support for a sUAS program.).
    • Risk managers.
    • Drone SMEs.
    • Unions and collective bargaining units.
    • Jurisdictional and agency technology review committees. 
    • End-users.
    • Others.

    8. Buy the right stuff appropriate for the agency’s mission. Ensure that the agency purchases equipment and software that will accomplish the mission of the sUAS program.  Do the research and talk to the people who have already developed a sUAS capability.    

    • sUAS Vehicles. There are a variety of drone vehicles that have varying capabilities relating to durability, flight time and load capacity.
    • Flight Control Equipment.
    • Sensory Equipment. Video cameras, thermal cameras, night vision and radiation detectors.
    • Payload Capacity. What equipment does the agency need to deliver the payload required of the mission, such as delivering items to remote or inaccessible areas, e.g., PFDs, radios, EMS supplies, food and water.    
    • Batteries and Chargers. Enough batteries and battery chargers to provide the agency with the flight time required for the missions.    
    • Live-Streaming software.    
    • Evidence Retention. Ensure that the agency’s evidence retention system can handle the additional load created by a sUAS program.
    • Flight Software. There is software available that will automatically restrict the use of the drone inside of a federal “no fly zone” (NFZ). Additionally, there is other software that will direct the drone to fly a precise path to search and photograph/video a designated area. Other types of software are available and will develop even more over time. 

    9. Operators need the right training. sUAS Operators need to be very familiar with the legal and regulatory requirements, as well as the safe operation of the vehicles.

    • Operators can receive FAA Part 107 certification by taking the required written test through the FAA.  No skills demonstration is required at this time.
    • While not required if operating under a COA, agencies should consider training their operators to the Part 107 standards for the sake of proficiency.   
    • There are private vendors that can provide the training and education to prepare for the Part 107 test and to fly the sUAS vehicles.
    • As with maintaining any type of skill, some regular practice is required. 

    10. Agencies need to exercise this capability. Agencies should ensure that drone operators maintain and enhance their flight capability through real-world deployments and exercises. Additionally, command staff and others in decision-making roles should participate in exercises to test, develop, and enhance the agency’s sUAS capability.

    • Test the capability of the agency’s equipment and operators in drills in a variety of indoor and outdoor environments.
    • Participate in discussion-based exercises for operators and command personnel to develop and enhance the operational planning for drone deployments. 
    • Include the deployment of the drone capability in other operations-based and discussion-based exercises conducted by the agency and/or jurisdiction. 

  • 10 May 2019 10:14 AM | International Public Safety Association (Administrator)

    By Jessica Dockstader, IPSA Mental Health Committee Member

    Police officers experience traumatic events throughout their career called critical incidents. A study conducted by Chopko, Palmieri and Adams (2015) found that on average, law enforcement officers experience 188 critical incidents in the course of their career. In response to critical incidents, officers can develop negative coping mechanisms, experience symptoms of and/or develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and develop other co-occurring psychopathological disorders. Additionally, factors such as organizational stress, stigma surrounding mental health within the department, a lack of mental health literacy on the part of the officer, and a lack of leadership surrounding mental health in the department can also lead to an officer developing PTSD and/or using poor coping mechanisms.

    Officers suffering from PTSD or PTSD-like symptoms have a higher likelihood of exhibiting violent tendencies towards the community and themselves; this is in part due to patterns such as “death imprint” and “desensitization” commonly displayed by individuals suffering from PTSD (James & Gilliland, 2017). Furthermore, the characteristics of PTSD such as hypervigilance and reliving memories can cause officers to become violent towards themselves and the community. Law enforcement departments must adopt best practices and policies relating to officer mental health to in turn address police violence—thereby reducing officer suicides and preventing traumatized officers from causing harm to the communities they serve.

    Trauma and policing

    Police violence in the United States may be significantly influenced by unaddressed trauma. Police officers experience trauma on a daily basis during critical incidents which “frequently involve perceptions of death, threat to life, or involve bodily injury” (Digliani, 2012). In addition, studies have found that law enforcement officers under-utilize available psychological services (Spence, 2017). As a result, officers’ ability to distinguish real from perceived threats may be impaired, causing an overreaction in situations involving threat (Lancaster, Cobb, Telch & Lee. 2016). Officers may legitimately “fear for their lives”, as they often assert after a use of force, but their fear response may originate from a history of untreated trauma related to cumulative post-traumatic stress disorder, and lack of coping skills rather than an actual threat (Beshears, 2017).

    The trauma that police officers face on a daily basis during critical incidents, coupled with their lack of or under utility of mental and emotional health training leads officers to be less efficient (Spence, 2017) and have high rates of suicide (Heyman, Dill & Douglas, 2018). One historical reason for the under usage of job-related psychological services by law enforcement officers of all ranks is fear of reprisal and creating barriers to promotion (Spence, 2017). Studies have illustrated that individuals struggling with psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress symptoms are more prone to violence (Gillikin, Habib, Evces, Bradley, Ressler & Sanders, 2016; Kivisto, Moore, Elkins & Rhatigan, 2009; Heyman et al. 2018). Therefore, a lack of adequate care and training leads to a more violence-prone police force patrolling our streets.

    Ignorance and dismissal

    Factors contributing to the ignorance and dismissal of the mental health crisis in law enforcement stems from mental health stigmas held across the United States and within the law enforcement community (Spence, 2017). Other contributing factors are the unwillingness to establish a mental health baseline in currently operating officers based on the fear that some of them are unfit to serve and the polarization between the police and the community which leads each side unwilling to admit any fault.

    The challenge lies in establishing that police officers are, like all human beings, in fact affected by trauma without implying they are unable to do their jobs. It is imperative to impress upon the law enforcement community that their officers might be suffering from post-traumatic stress which in turn impacts the way they do their job. This impairment is a public health concern to the officers and the communities they serve.

    In the current age of polarization, many officers are apprehensive that community members will point to the proven trauma an officer experiences as a reason they either should not be on the job, or why the community member should receive compensation in a civil suit as a form of justice. Fear is present among both sides of this equation, with the officers and the community, leaving the problem of trauma-impaired law enforcement officers to be relatively unexplored. Researchers must determine if prolonged exposure to traumatic events throughout a law enforcement professional’s career, which is proven to increase aggression and violence, can be offset by mental and emotional health training at the beginning and throughout said law enforcement professional’s career.

    Below are key recommendations for law enforcement agencies and researchers.

    Law enforcement recommendations

    Centralize Mental Health Resources: Develop an area within the department where all resources available for officer mental health and wellness are centralized and can be easily accessed. This will simultaneously accomplish two goals: reducing the stigma of receiving help and ensuring every officer knows where to go if and when they are seeking out help.

    Partner with Mental Health Organizations: Partner with mental health organizations such as the National Alliance on Mental Illness, and/or former law enforcement officers who have experienced and overcome mental health issues to deliver presentations to officers on how to recognize signs of mental illness within themselves.

    Collect Data on Officer Suicides: Begin to collect data on the suicide rate of officers from the department, and contribute to the new data platform, a partnership between the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention.

    Prepare Lateral Transfers for Critical Incidents: Lateral transfers coming from a smaller department to a larger one may be more severely impacted by critical incidents (Chopko et al. 2015). Ensure these officers are receiving appropriate training and assistance as they integrate into the department.

    Recognize the Impacts of Understaffing on Officers: During the ongoing nationwide staffing shortage, it is important to emphasize mental health awareness and self-care for officers. Copenhaver and Tewksbury (2018) found that officers were 28.4% more likely to seek help for symptoms related to mental illness when they had received an extra hour of sleep; thus, it is imperative to better understand the impact of shift work and sleep deprivation on officers.

    Improve the Organizational Culture: Research has shown that organizational stressors have an equal or greater impact on law enforcement officers than critical incidents (Shane, 2010). Bring in an organizational consultant to assess and address issues which could be negatively impacting the department.

    Establish Partnerships with Research Organizations: Partner with local and/or national research organizations to integrate evidence-based practices in the department. Without coordinating these partnerships, the department, officers, and communities you serve have the potential to be negatively impacted.

    Research recommendations

    Conduct Research inside Departments: Develop relationships with law enforcement departments, so as to conduct research with their officers to determine their level of mental health literacy, attitudes towards mental health treatment, and to begin to determine how many officers are struggling with PTSD and PTSD related symptoms.

    Develop Safety Protocols for Officers: Law enforcement officers have a large fear of being “de-gunned”. At the same time, having their weapon can be a risk to them while suffering from PTSD. Researchers and counselors must work with law enforcement departments to create special safety plans to address an officer’s access to lethal means while placating their fear of not being able to work.

    Educate Departments on Evidence-Based Practices: Law enforcement departments have been utilizing Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) despite the fact that it has not been found to accomplish what it claims to (Mitchell, n.d.). Researchers must develop partnerships with law enforcement departments to routinely update them on the latest evidence-based practices, to ensure a robust flow of knowledge surrounding best practices in the field of law enforcement.

    About the Author

    Jessica Dockstader is an M.A. Candidate at the University of San Diego, and earned her B.A. in Human Development with a concentration in Counseling Services from California State University San Marcos. She is currently completing her Master’s capstone on mental health in law enforcement, and has worked in the field of police-community relations in San Diego for a year and a half. She also serves as a member of the IPSA Mental Health Committee.

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